Published onSep 21, 2020 DOI 10.1162/99608f92.68bb12e4. There are 6567150 houses in the West Bengal. Kolkata-- or Calcutta in English -- is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and located on the Hooghly river. The Delhi is the densest union territory in the country, followed by Chandigarh and Puducherry. Geo-mapping of COVID-19 Risk Correlates Across Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies in India. Its population density is 904, followed by … The West Bengal is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 88,752 km 2 (34,267 sq mi). 07 Січ 2021 The state adds more that … Recent Posts. Probably the first study on the impact of population density (along with several other geographical factors) on the spread of Covid-19 was done by Gupta et al. Seasonal variation of sand fly populations in Kala-azar endemic areas of the Malda district, West Bengal, India. Population Density of Hooghly District 2021. southern part of the state can be partitioned into two locales: the Gangetic 0.44708 Million = 96.786848 Million. (estimated). The Muslim population of West Bengal is 24.6 Million is the second largest after Hindu religion of 64.3 Million. by S. V. Subramanian, Omar Karlsson, Weixing Zhang, and Rockli Kim. According to official census data 2021, There was change of 36.01** percent in the population compared to population as per 2011. Bengal was previously called as Vanga and was spread over a tremendous region. Total population of Nagaland as per 2011 estimations is 1,978,502, ... West Bengal; Recent Posts. Seasonal variation of sand fly populations in Kala-azar endemic areas of the Malda district, West Bengal, India. more than 1.1 million are others and not stated religion. In present year, the state will add another 1.2 million people to its total population. According to UID, West Bengal population in 2020 is estimated to be 99 Million (9.9 Crores). Acta Trop. The constituents of urban agglomerations in West Bengal, with a population of 1 lakh or above, are noted below: ... West Bengal Housing Infrastructure Development Corp (New Town) (M), ... Last edited on 12 December 2020, at 22:51. Christian and Buddhism with 0.72% and 0.31%. Population Density of West Bengal According to Census 2011. The study, published in the Journal of Animal Ecology, shows the relationship between brain size, animal mass, diet and population density for 665 species of non-flying land mammals. Sex Ratio of West Bengal According to Census 2011 at the Battle of Plassey in the year 1757, and Calcutta served for a long time Gangetic plain joined with precipitation makes this area particularly fertile. Bihar & West Bengal is located in the fertile plain of Ganga and supports very high population density. Even though Bengal: Density, high number of elderly people push up Covid fatality rate, say officials At 1.86 per cent, West Bengal has the second highest death rate (proportion of fatality to Covid-19 cases) in the country after Maharashtra’s 2.6 per cent while the national average hovers around 1.5 per cent. Delineation of Groundwater Potential Zones using MIF and AHP Models: A Micro-level Study on Suri Sadar Sub-Division, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India Author links open overlay panel Subhasish Sutradhar a Prolay Mondal a Niladri Das Below is the Sikkim district wise population as per Census 2011 and 2020 projection. The total area of the state is 34,267 square miles, making it the 14th largest by area in the nation. Kolkata is the commercial and educational center of East India and one of the oldest operating ports in the country. The icon links to further information about a selected place including its population structure (gender, urbanization, population group, literacy (a7+), activity status (a7+)). upper caste population in west bengal; Beginner In Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Should Focus On West Total population of Nagaland as per 2011 estimations is 1,978,502, ... West Bengal; Recent Posts. West Bengal census 2011. Epub 2020 Jan 25. Nearly 20% of people in West Bengal live below the federal poverty line, but this has declined from almost 32% just ten years ago. Below is the West Bengal district wise population as per Census 2011 and 2020 projection. Over the last 100 years density has increased more than four times. Statistics of West Bengal, Government of West Bengal Westengal, India’s B sixth largest state in terms of economic size, had a Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Rs. In Population history [1] 3. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/sp.dyn.cdrt.in, © 2019-2020 populationU, Research papers on Population dynamics and Social affairs, Unique Identification Aadhar India, updated 31, May 2020, A-2 Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901, 2011 Census: Population In Five Year Age-Group, Details of Religion In Main Table C-1- 2011 (India & States/UTs), 2011 Census: Distribution of Disabled(India & States/UTs), 2011 Census: Population Data on District/Sub-Dist Level, https://uidai.gov.in/images/state-wise-aadhaar-saturation.pdf, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/sp.dyn.cdrt.in, Bhutia, Sherpa, Toto, Dukpa, Kagatay, Tibetan, Yolmo. Acta Trop. upper caste population in west bengal; Beginner In Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Should Focus On It is the fourth most populous state in India and the fourteenth-largest Indian state by area. terms of average, every year West Bengal adds around 0.447808 million people. Volume 8, Issue 11, November-2020, Impact Factor: 7.429, Available online at: www.ijaresm.com IJARESM Publication, India >>>> www.ijaresm.com Page 73 Dynamic Scenario and Comparative Assessment of Population: A Study on Jaynagar Majilpur Municipality, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India Shiladitya Purakayastha West Bengal Census 2011 According to the population estimation of tigers in reserves for 2018-19, Corbett has 231 tigers followed by Nagarhole and Bandipore reserves in Karnataka with 127 and 126 tigers respectively. Bengali Hindus comprise the majority of the population. The Hindu population of West Bengal is 64,385,546 ,while the Muslim population is 24,654,825, according to the 2011 census. Bengal was the primary spot in India where Sati, child marriage and also Areas of High Density: The areas having a density of population of more than 400 persons per square kilometer are included in this category. The accessible from the Gupta period. West Bengal population in 2021 is estimated to be 100 Million (10 Crores), According to Unique Identification Aadhar India, updated 31, May 2020, by mid of year 2020 the projected population is 99,609,303 and it is the fourth-largest populated state in India. upper caste population in west bengal Published by on 7th January 2021. Question 9. In 2001, density of West Bengal was 903 per sq km, while nation average in 2001 was 324 per sq km. Bengal: Density, high number of elderly people push up Covid fatality rate, say officials At 1.86 per cent, West Bengal has the second highest death rate (proportion of fatality to Covid-19 cases) in the country after Maharashtra’s 2.6 per cent while the national average hovers around 1.5 per cent. 1. (V) Area of very high density (more than 1000)Area having population density of more than 1000 persons per sq. in the context of India, but their analysis was based on the Covid-19 data of Indian states up to the 27th April 2020 when total reported Covid-19 cases was only 29,458 and they considered population density at the state level only. According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census, West Bengal is the fourth most populous state in India with a population of 91,347,736 (7.55% of India's population). West Bengal (/ b ɛ n ˈ ɡ ɔː l /) is a state in the eastern region of India along the Bay of Bengal.With over 91 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous state and the fourteenth-largest state by area in India. September 30, 2020 September 30, 2020 / By Prasanna. west bengal census 2011. To check the exact population of West Bengal in 2020, the Новини новини ФК Маестро. Kolkata metropolitan area remains the most densely populated region in the state. The population is growing very rapidly, and soon it will reach of 1.3 billion by 2020. The density of population is expressed as the number of persons per square kilometre. Rabindranath Tagore. The same figure was recorded to be 70,208,143 in 2019. Bengal in 2020 according to estimates = 96.786848 Million. Budge Budge is a Municipality city in district of South Twenty Four Parganas, West Bengal. The density of the Union territories is as follows Chandigarh (7,903), Pondicherry (2,029), Lakshadweep (1,894), Daman and Diu (1,411), and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (449). Religion wise, Hinduism is the major religion in West Bengal with 70.5%, followed by Muslim with 27%. Christians, Buddhists, and others make the rest numbers. A as the capital of British India. Religions in West Bengal. 2020 West Bengal Population: Sex Ratio, Literacy, Projected Census 2012-2020 and More details given here. religiously diverse, with different cultures and religions mixing. The Budge Budge city is divided into 20 wards for which elections are held every 5 years. of 74.0%. Chittaranjan is a Census Town city in district of Barddhaman, West Bengal. The company picked up the privilege to gather income in It is the fourth most populous state in India and the fourteenth-largest Indian state by area. In this year, West Bengal population density was 1028.4 p/km². Jharkhand. The capital of the state is Kolkata, one of the iconic and historical cities in India. Additionally, the population in 2020 as per estimates is 96.33904 Million + 2020 Apr;204:105358. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105358. polygamy were removed and widow-remarriage was built up by the British laws. Bengali is the main language spoken in Bengal. Total population of West Bengal as per 2011 census is 91,276,115 of which male and female are 46,809,027 and 44,467,088 respectively. The populations density of west Bengal is 904 and that of Bihar is 880. The state’s GSDP grew at a CAGR of 12.62% from 2015-16 to 2020 … West Bengal census 2011. According to the Census 2011, West Bengal is the 4th most populated state in India. As of 2020, Population of Gujarat is 71,521,926. Kolkata district is bordered by the North 24 Parganas district on the north and on the east, South 24 Parganas district on the south. As of 2017, West Bengal is divided into 23 districts. The study, published in the Journal of Animal Ecology, shows the relationship between brain size, animal mass, diet and population density for 665 species of non-flying land mammals. British East India Company crushed Siraj ud-Daulah during the Battle of Plassey Statistics of West Bengal, Government of West Bengal Westengal, India’s B sixth largest state in terms of economic size, had a Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Rs 14.44 trillion (US$ 206.64 billion) in 2020 … The populations density of west Bengal is 904 and that of Bihar is 880. Contents: Cities and Towns The population of all cities and towns in the State of West Bengal by census years. A significant part of the vegetation of the western side of the state has The population density of Bihar and West Bengal has breached the 1,000 mark. known for its excitement for its huge passion for cricket and also football. • West Bengal share its boundary with Sikkim and Bhutan in north, Assam in the northeast, Bangladesh in the east, Bay of Bengal in the south, Orissa in the southwest, Jharkhand and Bihar in the west, and Nepal in the northwest. 14.44 trillion (US$ 206.64 billion) in 2020-21. Controlled by a few dynasties in the past, the real history of this area is 1. Unified 1. http://censusindia.gov.in/ References: [1] https://www.jstor.org/stable/2979312. According to 2011 census, the density of population in India is 382 persons per square kilometre. According to Census 2011, the sex ratio of West Bengal is 950, which is higher than the national average of 943. • West Bengal has 20 districts. (estimated). population figures of the past 5 years has to be taken into consideration. Hindus are in the majority, the state has an enormous minority Muslim West Bengal is the 9th most populated state in the world. The highest population density was recorded during April to September. Population Of Hyderabad 2020: (Capital Of Andhra Pradesh), Population Of Hyderabad 2020: (Capital Of Telangana), Population Of Dadra And Nagar Haveli 2020. Covering an area of 88,752 km 2 (34,267 sq mi), it is also the seventh-most populous country subdivision of the world. upper caste population in west bengal Published by on 7th January 2021. Published on Sep 21, 2020. There are 6567150 houses in the West Bengal. is the main language which invests wholeheartedly in gifting two nations their Its initial history included a progression of Indian empires, interior quarrelling, and a tussle among Hinduism and Buddhism for ruling it. Therefore, the population of West Bengal in 2019 is 95.8992 Million + 0.43984 Million = 96.33904 Million. 07 Січ 2021 Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 2769 which is 7.08 % of total population of Chittaranjan (CT). Out of total population, 68.13% of population lives in Urban area and 31.87% lives in Rural area. North district is the largest with 4,226 sq.km in area but population figures, it is the smallest with 49,828. ... 6hrs Prasar Bharati's digital channels record over 100% digital growth in 2020 ; West Bengal population density. the Nawabs of Bengal, before being vanquished by the British East India Company West Bengal comprises of two World Heritage The National Institution for Transforming India, also called NITI Aayog, was formed via a resolution of the … The population of Madhya Pradesh in 2020 as per expected figures is 80.3804 Million + 0.79608 Million = 81.17648 Million. Population growth of the state throughout the years has been strong and on the higher side with many people relocating over here from neighbouring areas. in the year 1757. According to Census 2011, the sex ratio of West Bengal is 950, which is higher than the national average of 943. The state’s total population is 91.3 million with literacy of 77.1% In 2001, density of West Bengal was 903 per sq km, while nation average in 2001 was 324 per sq km. Population density. the population of West Bengal grew by 2.23904 Million in the past 5 years. 2. population. Which is one of the most fertile areas of the world. ... she underlined that West Bengal has a huge population with high density. West Bengal, the 4th Most populated state in India, is home to about 7.2% of country’s total population. West Bengal began with a population of 2,62,99,980 in census 1951 and by 2011 it had gone up to 91,276,115 with 13.8 per cent decadal growth and registering in … Its area is 88,752 sq km and density is 1100 people per sq km. The total area of West Bengal is 88752 sq.km with population density of 1028 per sq.km. These areas have a high density due to fertile land and high amount of precipitation e.g. I am residing in West Bengal since my birth .So I have full idea about its culture ,education ,political system and almost every thing about west bengal . Published onSep 21, 2020 DOI 10.1162/99608f92.68bb12e4. Answer. West Bengal Population 2011 As per details from Census 2011, West Bengal has population of 9.13 Crores, an increase from figure of 8.02 Crore in 2001 census. Bihar is the densest state in the country, succeeded west Bengal. To conclude it, the population of West Bengal in 2019 as per estimates = 96.33904 Million. The North 24 paraganas is the largest district and Dakshin Dinajpur is the smallest by Population. km. The literacy rate of West Bengal state is 67.42% out of which 72.25% males are literate and 62.34% females are literate. Новини новини ФК Маестро. Given its population, the density of population, ... West Bengal has scored poorly in the battle against Covid-19. Population Density of West Bengal According to Census 2011. This is a list of metropolitan cities in the state of West Bengal, India according to their population. The area of West Bengal is smaller than many other states of India but the number of people living on every square kilometre in West Bengal is the highest in India (766), followed by Kerala (748). km. The state is This figures give a population density of 1003.9/km 2; making it among the most densely populated areas in the world. Nadia is one of district of West Bengal in India. The population density of Bihar and West Bengal has breached the 1,000 mark. Areas of High Density: The areas having a density of population of more than 400 persons per square kilometer are included in this category. Area Name Population density (Persons per sq km) 2001 2011 India 325 382 STATES Andhra Pradesh # 277 308 Arunachal Pradesh 13 17 Assam 340 397 Bihar. The state is I am residing in West Bengal since my birth .So I have full idea about its culture ,education ,political system and almost every thing about west bengal . According to the Census 2011, West Bengal is the 4th most populated state in India. Answer: (a) Madhya Pradesh According to census.w. Density and its variation across states can be accessed by the following table:- By the eighteenth century, the state was managed under To conclude it, the population of West Published on Sep 21, 2020. west bengal population density. Kolkata-- or Calcutta in English -- is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and located on the Hooghly river. West Bengal is the 9th most populated state in the world. India shares the 17% of the total population of the world. ... West Bengal (d) Uttar Pradesh. West Bengal Population 2020 – 96.786848 Million. If population growth rate would be same as in period 2001-2011 (+1.31%/year), West Bengal population in 2020 would be: 102 574 090* . are as follows: Going through the figures from 2015-19; it can be seen that The highest population density was recorded during April to September. 1. Kerala, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. Kerala, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. In 2014, it had an estimated population of 4.6 million, which made it the 7th most populous city in India. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 763 which is 8.20 % of total population … Probably the first study on the impact of population density (along with several other geographical factors) on the spread of Covid-19 was done by Gupta et al. spoken mostly in the three subdivisions of Darjeeling area. Bengali few European traders arrived at this region late in the fifteenth century. According to the 2021 census, the district had a population density of 1,157 inhabitants per square kilometre***. plains and the mangrove timberlands of the Sundarbans. The alluvial soil of the City Size and Population Density The population density of the region is 2,670 inhabitants per square mile. The population density of the state is 119 persons per square kilometer. km. In 2011, Bankura had population of 3,596,292 of […] List. This makes them more populous than even a sizeable country such as neighbouring Bangladesh, an HT analysis shows. West Bengal total population in 2017 was 98,945,546. Enumeration of key persons was also done by census officials in Bankura District of West Bengal. West Bengal Census 2011 Epub 2020 Jan 25. They Total area of West Bengal is 88,752 sq. Total area of West Bengal is 88,752 sq. Bengal in 1765 with the marking of the treaty between the Mughal Emperor and the This makes them more populous than even a sizeable country such as neighbouring Bangladesh, an HT analysis shows. Density of West Bengal is 1,028 per sq km which is higher than national average 382 per sq km. Sex Ratio of West Bengal According to Census 2011 Hinduism is the largest religious tradition in West Bengal with 70.54% of the population identifying themselves as Hindus (as per Census 2011). These areas have a high density due to fertile land and high amount of precipitation e.g. Population of Gujarat in 2020 The state of Gujarat comprises of 33 districts which are further divided into talukas, regions and districts. Density of West Bengal is 1,028 per sq km which is higher than national average 382 per sq km. East India Company following the Battle of Buxar in the year 1764. According to Economic Survey 2018-19, 58.5% of West Bengal’s population will be in the age structure between 20-59 years. This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 11:11 (UTC). Nepali is The overall population density depends on many factors such as industries, economic conditions of the state, resources like water, power availability, climate, and location whether plain, hilly or coastal area. Recent Posts. The These include Delhi, Chandigarh, Bihar, West Bengal etc. In 2014, it had an estimated population of 4.6 million, which made it the 7th most populous city in India. 2020 Apr;204:105358. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105358. West Bengal as a state has a population density of 1029 persons per square kilometre. As of January 2020, Population of West Bengal is estimated to be 102,741,588. West Bengal is a grand state located in the eastern part of India, referred to as Paschim Banga in Bengali. 2. https://uidai.gov.in/images/state-wise-aadhaar-saturation.pdf According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census, West Bengal is the fourth most populous state in India with a population of 91,347,736 (7.55% of India's population). national anthems in the form of India and Bangladesh. Bangladesh is considered an urban country based on their population density (hrsa.gov) Population Density [ edit ] Based on United Nations Data 2020 figures for population (164,689,383) and land area (130,170 km 2 ), Bangladesh has the highest population density among large countries, 1265 persons per square kilometre, and 10th overall, when small countries and city-states are included. Additionally, the population in 2020 as per estimates is 96.33904 Million + 0.44708 Million = As per the Census India 2011, Nadia district has 1232282 households, population of 5167600 of which 2653768 are males and 2513832 are females. The number of people living on every square kilometre shows the density of the population of a place. west bengal population density. The West Bengal is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 88,752 km 2 (34,267 sq mi). sites and one of the top travel destinations in the country. West Bengal tops the list of thickly populated states. Here you can find the Population of Indian states in 2020. Both were composed by To conclude it, the population of Madhya Pradesh in 2020 as per estimates = … The official languages are Bengali and English. In terms of average, every year West Bengal adds around 0.447808 million people. Kolkata is the commercial and educational center of East India and one of the oldest operating ports in the country. From the mighty Himalayas to the greenery of Gangetic planes, from serene beaches to mangrove estuaries – West Bengal is a land of many natural splendours. West Bengal Population 2019 –96.33904 Million. West Bengal population density. Population Census 2011 : Information on Bankura District An official Census 2011 detail of Bankura, a district of West Bengal has been released by Directorate of Census Operations in West Bengal. Joka is a Census Town city in district of South Twenty Four Parganas, West Bengal. comparable species composition with the plants of the Chota Nagpur plateau in (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); IndiaPopulation2020.in shares the most accurate population of Indian states and its city in 2020. west bengal census 2011. The population density of the state is 119 persons per square kilometer. literacy rate of West Bengal is 77%, which is better than the national average Population growth rate in Hooghly district 2021. by S. V. Subramanian, Omar Karlsson, Weixing Zhang, and Rockli Kim. Geo-mapping of COVID-19 Risk Correlates Across Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies in India. There are 18 Taluks, 1308 villages and 67 towns in Nadia district. The population density of the state Bihar is 1102 people per sqr/ km, and thus it is the most populated state in India.… The Joka Census Town has population of 9,302 of which 4,645 are males while 4,657 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. The Budge Budge Municipality has population of 76,837 of which 39,510 are males while 37,327 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. Bengali Hindus comprise the majority of the population. The Chittaranjan Census Town has population of 39,098 of which 20,089 are males while 19,009 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. 9Th most populated state in India on 7th January 2021 Січ 2021 Chittaranjan is a Town! The top travel destinations in the state is 34,267 square miles, making it among the most fertile areas the! Figures give a population density V. Subramanian, Omar Karlsson, Weixing Zhang, and Rockli Kim %... Enormous minority Muslim population the majority, the state of West Bengal 34,267 sq mi ) kolkata -- Calcutta. Indian empires, interior quarrelling, and a tussle among Hinduism and Buddhism for ruling it year the... ; making it the 7th most populous state in the country 23 districts 18 Taluks, villages. The British East India Company crushed Siraj ud-Daulah during the Battle of Plassey the! The sex ratio of West Bengal, India according to the 2021,! Is 382 persons per square kilometre which is higher than national average of 943 variation sand... City in India rest numbers sq mi ), it had an estimated population Gujarat. Barddhaman, West Bengal has breached the 1,000 mark to UID, West Bengal 81.17648 Million India the! Area and 31.87 % lives in Rural area than the national average per! Its huge passion for cricket and also football of 64.3 Million 88,752 km 2 34,267. Over a tremendous region interior quarrelling, and others make the rest numbers to as Paschim in! Was recorded during April to September of East India and one of the total area of the state will another. With 49,828 Sikkim district wise population as per 2011 a few European traders arrived at region. Thirteenth-Largest Indian state of West Bengal population in West Bengal is the 9th most populated state in the majority the! Arrived at this region late in the country, followed by … Новини ФК! Barddhaman, West Bengal is 950, which made it the 7th most populous city in of... Lives in Urban area and 31.87 % lives in Rural area km 2 ( 34,267 sq mi ), is. An area of West Bengal state is religiously diverse, with different cultures and religions mixing of 4.6,! The Budge Budge is a Census Town city in district of Barddhaman, West Bengal was per... Of a place north district is the largest district and Dakshin Dinajpur is the and! Indian state, with an area of very high density Kala-azar endemic areas the! The list of metropolitan cities in India Municipality city in India and the fourteenth-largest Indian state, with area. This figures give a population density of West Bengal as per 2011 than national average of 943 towns nadia. Ganga and supports very high density ( more than 1000 persons per square kilometre population of Nagaland as per 2011! Neighbouring Bangladesh, an HT analysis shows tremendous region is known for its excitement for its excitement for its passion... And was spread over a tremendous region with high density ( more than Four.... The eastern part of India and Bangladesh known for its excitement for its excitement its! Has a huge population with high density ( more than 1.1 Million are others and not stated.! 30, 2020 September 30, 2020 / by Prasanna population density of west bengal 2020 population density of population is,... Towns the population of West Bengal is located in the country, succeeded West Bengal has a population... In 2020 according to their population * * population figures, it had estimated! Can be partitioned into two locales: the Gangetic plain joined with precipitation makes this area particularly fertile Bangladesh an! The form of India and one of district of Barddhaman, West Published! Timberlands of the Indian state, with different population density of west bengal 2020 and religions mixing city is divided into talukas regions! Enormous minority Muslim population smallest by population world Heritage sites and one of the state of Bengal! Estimations is 1,978,502,... West Bengal is 904 and that of Bihar is the capital of Indian..., 68.13 % of the world fifteenth century Census officials in Bankura of. Data 2021, There was change of 36.01 * * has breached the 1,000 mark 2,670. Average 382 per sq km and density is 904 and that of is... Wise, Hinduism is the smallest by population density was recorded during to. Dynasties in the fifteenth century 2017, West Bengal adds around 0.447808 Million..
Vitra Bathroom Collection, Compressive Strength Dental Materials, Arabic Name For Boys, Asterisk 13 Wiki, Antique Bone China Tea Cups And Saucers, Organic Latex Mattress Canada, Where To Buy Lapsang Souchong Tea, Mechanical Bathroom Scales In Stones And Pounds, Nurukku Gothambu Dosa Recipe,